International Association for Assistance to the Abaza-Abkhazian ethnos «Alashara»

The origins of the past: the Shumerians

Истоки прошлого: шумеры

Today there is an acute problem of the disappearance of the remaining Caucasian languages, as it happened with the Khatt, Khurrit, Urartian, Etruscan, Ubykh and other "dead" languages. And we must look for any way to resist this. From the time of the great flood, and can be considered even earlier - since the advent of the Shumerians, there is a great militant people of ashua, whose disappearance can not be allowed.

Many thousands years ago in the area called Mesopotamia in Asia Minor appeared Shumerians. Shumerian king Alulim ruled the city of Eridu. The beginning of the rule of Alulim is associated with the beginning of the Shumerian civilization, although from the point of view of the Shumerians, "the Shumerians have always been civilized." The royal power of Alulim, included in the list of Shumerian kings (this is probably the oldest historical record in the world), was "descended from heaven" and was already absolute when it appeared on earth. Since it is not established how old the Shumerian Royal list is, it is impossible to establish the time of the reign of Alulim, and in other sources it is not mentioned. It is known that the Sumerian Royal list was applied to clay tablets around 2100 BC, but in fact it reflects the older traditions.

There are several versions of the origin of the originally appeared people – the Shumerians, from which branches from different tribes could appear, for example, Abazin, Abkhazians, the people close to them – the Adygs, who proved by reading cuneiform texts their belonging to the oldest people – the Khutts, the disappeared people of Ubykh, who, like the Abaza people, was considered one of the most militant in the Caucasus.

Consider the etymology of the word Ashshur - so called Assyrian God, and so called the capital of the Assyrian state. The word that is directly related to the Shumerians: "A" shows ownership; "shu" – to boil, to burn; "r" – word-formative suffix. That is, we can translate the word Ashshur as "hot", "boiling", "strong", as a synonym for the word "Shumer". Consider the etymology of the same word Ashur in another way, dividing it into two parts: Ash and Ur. Let us turn to Aubrey Fessenden, who writes: "there is evidence coming from the language itself that a person did not talk until he came to the Caucasus, and that he learned to speak there. The main thing, apparently, that made him the greatest impression on the Caucasian ridge, was the fire, for which his word was "Ur". "Ash "(ash) meant "from", so Ashur meant something from which the fire came. The wood was Ashur, and the ocean in the East was called Ashur, because the sun, which was a fire for him, came out of him. Aps meant the place where the sun rose, and also – and the East, and the horizon, and the final part of the mountain, and the mountain range. All the early roots of the words have such a form that they could hardly appear anywhere except the Caucasian isthmus. Ur and al were onomatopoeic." Next, we meet F.R. Fessenden`s words: "the first God was Ur or Al, the God of light."

Consider the etymology of the word Marduk (the name of God, superior to all Gods created before him). Mar (Mara) – translation from the Abaza language means "sun". Du-translation from the Abaza language is great. The translation of all words from the Abaza language into Russian language means "big sun", i.e. "strongly heating sun".

Let's pay attention to the city-state of Kish. Kish is built by the God Kish. The name of the God of Kish sounds in the Abaza and Abkhaz surnames Kishevs, Kishaevs, Kishmakhovs, Kishokovs, Kishmaria. We can assume that the origin of these names is somehow connected with the God Kish.

The city Nippur created by God Nippur or native Nipa residing in the village Starokuvinsky in Karachay-Cherkessia and Abkhazia.

The city of Umma was created by God, the Ummah, and the family of the Ummah created a demi-God of Umma. The ruler of the city-state of Umma bore the name of Usha, which today is preserved in Abaza (ashua) village Inzhich-Chukun of Karachay-Cherkess republic.

The Shumerian city of Lars is created by the God of Lars or the native of Lars, who lives in the village of Starokuvinsky of the Karachay-Cherkess republic. But here we must add that the city of Lars is in the Caucasus. Even Alexander Pushkin, who stayed in Lars, when traveling in the Caucasus, mentioned of it. "Seven miles from Lars is Daryalsky post. The gorge bears the same name. The rocks on both sides are parallel to the walls. Here so narrowly, so narrowly, writes one traveler, not only to see but seem to feel cramped. A piece of sky, like a ribbon, is turning blue above your head. The streams falling from the mountain height with small and splashed jets reminded me of Ganymede's abduction, a strange picture of Rembrandt" (A. S. Pushkin. A journey to Arzrum). Later in the same work  Pushkin writes that already at the entrance to Georgia he stops in Ananuri, (translated from Abaza as "ray mother", "maternal light": An – mother, Nur – ray, light). "I came to Ananuri without feeling of tired. My horses didn't come. I was told that to the city of Dushet there were no more than ten versts, and I again went on foot. But I didn't know the road was uphill. These ten miles were worth a good twenty."

The name of the Shumerian city of Akka is preserved in Abkhazia: its capital, the city of Sukhum, is called in oral speech as the ancient name of Akka. And such examples are countless.

It should be noted that some cities and the names of the gods are translated from Kabardino-Circassian language, which tells us about the close relationship of the Kabardian (Adyghe) people with Abaza (Ashua) and Abkhazian. But at the same time, it should be noted that a lot of Abaza families over the last few centuries became Kabardian, and what we call today, Kabardino-Circassian, can not be linked with the Shumerians, as the Kabardians, in contrast to Abaza-ashua, came much later. Another thing is the Adygeans who lived near the Abaza people from ancient times. Kabardians themselves believe that in the past they were one people with Abaza and Abkhaz. This is confirmed by cuneiform texts written in the II-III Millennium BC, which are read in Abaza, and Abkhazian, and Kabardino-Circassian languages.